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            • 所屬考試大學英語四級試題庫
            • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section C】
                Teaching children to read well from the start is the most important task of elementary schools. But relying on educators to approach this task correctly can be a great mistake. Many schools continue to employ instructional methods that have been proven ineffective. The staying power of the "look-say" or "whole-word" method of teaching beginning reading is perhaps the most flagrant example of this failure to instruct effectively.
                The whole-word approach to reading stresses the meaning of words over the meaning of letters, thinking over decoding,developing a sight vocabulary of familiar words over developing the ability to unlock the pronunciation of unfamiliar words. It fits in with the self-directed, "learning how to learn" activities recommended by advocates ( 倡導者) of "open" classrooms and with the concept that children have to be developmentally ready to begin reading. Before 1963, no major publisher put out anything but these "Run-Spot-Run" readers.
                However, in 1955, Rudolf Flesch touched off what has been called "the great debate" in beginning reading. In his best-seller Why Johnny Can't Read, Flesch indicted (控訴) the nation's public schools for miseducating students by using the look-say method.He said--and more scholarly studies by Jeane Chall and Rovert Dykstra later confirmed--that another approach to beginning reading, founded on phonics (語音學), is far superior.
                Systematic phonics first teaches children to associate letters and letter combinations with sounds; it then teaches them how to blend these sounds together to make words. Rather than building up arelatively limited vocabulary of memorized words, it imparts a code by which the pronunciations of the vast majority of the most common words in the English language can be learned. Phonics does not devalue the importance of thinking about the meaning of words and sentences; it simply recognizes that decoding is the logical and necessary first step.
            1.[單選題]According to the author, which of the following statements is true?
            • A.Phonics approach regards whole word method as unimportant.
            • B.The whole word approach emphasizes decoding.
            • C.In phonics approach, it is necessary and logical to employ decoding.
            • D.Phonics is superior because it stresses the meaning of words thus the vast majority of most common words can belearned.
            • 解題思路:推斷題。從第二段中綜合出“whole word”閱讀方法的特點:強調單詞的意思;由此即可知B、D是錯的;在文章的最后一句話,作者指出Phonics does not devalue the importance of thinking about the meaning of words and sentences,所以A也是不對的。故選項C正確。
            2.[單選題]The author indicts the look-say reading approach because ________.
            • A.it overlooks decoding
            • B.Rudolf Flesch agrees with him
            • C.he says it is boring
            • D.many schools continue to use this method
            • 解題思路:細節題。第一段的最后一句指出“邊看邊說”(look.Say method)或“全詞法”(whole.Word method)的閱讀教學方法是失敗的,接著第二段分析了這種方法失敗的原因,是因為它“stresses the meaning of words over the meaning of,thinking over decoding…”即過多地強調了詞的含義。故選項A正確。
            3.[單選題]One major difference between the  "look-say" method of learning reading and the phonics method is ________.
            • A.look-say is simpler
            • B.phonics takes longer to learn
            • C.look-say is easier to teach
            • D.phonics gives readers access to far more words
            • 解題思路:細節題。文章在最后一段談到了系統聲學法(systematic phonics),并分析了這種教學法的好處。由該段的第二句話“Rather than building up a relatively limited vocabulary of memorizedwords.It imparts a code by which the pronunciations of the vast majority of the most common words in the English language can be learned.” 可知這種方法能使學習者獲得更大的詞匯量。故選項D正確。
            4.[單選題]The phrase "touch off' (Para.3 )most probably means ________.
            • A.talk about shortly
            • B.start or cause
            • C.compare with
            • D.oppose
            • 解題思路:含義題。本題要求利用上下文猜測單詞的意思。根據第二段的最后一句,在1963年以前.出版的東西都是教授使用whole word的方法的,緊接著用了轉折詞However.說在1955年,Rudolf Flesch“touched off,一場爭論,因此此處的touch off必然是“引起”的意思。故選項B正確。
            5.[單選題]The author feels that counting on educators to teach reading correctly is ________.
            • A.only logical and natural
            • B.the expected position
            • C.probably a mistake
            • D.merely effective instruction
            • 解題思路:細節題。根據短文第一段的第二句話,其中的relying on educators與題干中的counting on educators是相同的意思。故選項C正確。
            • 參考答案:C,A,D,B,C